Sunday, September 1, 2013

A tutorial on energy

This tutorial provides an introduction and a bigger picture required to actively participate in any energy related discussion. The energy production and consumption numbers are related to year 2012-2013 and are presented from Indian perspective.  This report has to be updated at least on an annual basis  otherwise, it may provide a basic understanding of the energy sector but it relevance and accuracy diminishes over a period of time. The sources used to generate this report are listed below and the same sources may be safely used to update this report.

Data sources
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. US Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects, analyzes, and disseminates independent and impartial energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. EIA is the nation's premier source of energy information and, by law, its data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the U.S. Government.

The International Energy Agency (IEA; French: Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The IEA acts as a policy adviser to its member states, but also works with non-member countries, especially China, India, and Russia. The Agency's mandate has broadened to focus on the "3Es" of effectual energy policy: energy security, economic development, and environmental protection.

The European Environment Agency (EEA) is an agency of the European Union. Our task is to provide sound, independent information on the environment. It is a major information source for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public. Currently, the EEA has 33 member countries.  EEA helps member nations and the genera public to make informed decisions about improving the environment, integrating environmental considerations into economic policies and moving towards sustainability

“Energy Statistics” brought out every year by Central Statistics Office (CSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme implementation Government of India, contains the latest data available from the concerned line Ministries of the Government of India.

Fuel types
Many types of fuels such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels are used to generate conventional energy. Uncoventional energy is generated by unconventional energy sources such as wind, solar, nuclear and the like.  Biomass fuel and fossil fuel (also called hydrocarbons such as petroleum) are other types.  Renewable energies: First generation- hydropower, biomass and geothermal. Second generation - solar and wind.  Third generation - ocean energy, biorefinery, solar thermal power.

Different forms of energy needs a common unit to compare, measure and accounting purposes.  British thermal unit (BTU) is one such unit.  BTU is a traditional unit of energy equal to about 1055 joules. It is the amount of energy needed to cool or heat one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
Total primary energy produced in a country may be determined by converting each individual type energy  produced by various means to BTU equivalent and adding all of them. BTU equivalent of common energy units are given below.

1 barrel (42 gallons) of crude oil = 5,800,000 BTU
1 gallon of gasoline = 124,238 BTU (based on U.S. consumption, 2011)
1 gallon of diesel fuel = 138,690 BTU
1 gallon of heating oil = 138,690 BTU
1 barrel of residual fuel oil = 6,287,000 BTU
1 cubic foot of natural gas = 1,023 BTU (based on U.S. consumption, 2011)
1 gallon of propane = 91,333 BTU
1 short ton of coal = 19,858,000 BTU (based on U.S. consumption, 2011)
1 kilowatthour of electricity = 3,412 BTU = 3.6x 106 J
1BTU = 1055 Joules

An alternative energy unit used in reports published by Indian Government agencies is Tonnes of Oil Equivalent (TOE).  The conversion between the TOE and BTU is given as,   
1 toe = 39,683,205.411 BTU = 0.039 x 10-6 Quadrillion BTU
1MTOE = 0.039 Quadrillion BTU = 4.1868 x 104 Tera Joules = 41.868 Peta Joules  (Peta = 1015)
Since the BTU is a small unit, large energies are expressed in Quadrillion units. One Quadrillion=1015
on short scale which is primarily used in US by EIA.

The derivation of enery units from fundamentals is provided below

Gravitational constant is g (acceleration m/s^2)
Weight (force, Newton) = mass (kg) x g
Energy = Force x distance
Power = Energy/second
Power (watt) = Energy (joule)/s
                   = Force (N) x distance (m)/s
                   =  mass (kg) x m/s^2 x m/s
                   = kg m^2 / s^3

A big picture of energy scenario in India
Oil production: 21st rank in the world, about 1% of the world's production at 990 thousand Barrels per Day
Natural gas: 19th rank in the world, about 1.4% of the world's production at 1681 Billion Cubic Feet. It is importing about 580  Billion Cubic Feet (17th largest cosumer in the world)
Coal: 3rd biggest producer in the world, about 7.5% of the world's production at 640 Million Short Tons. Additionally, India imports about 80 Million Short Tons of coal.
Elelctricity generation:  (5th place) with (around 5% of the world's total production) at around 1000 Billion Kilowatthours.  Installed capacity is 208GWe (Giga Watt energy). and Net consumption is about 700Billion Kilowatthours.
Total Primary Energy : production is 6th largest with 16 Quadrillion BTU contributing to about 3% of worlds total production.  4th largest consumer with 23 Qudrillion BTU consumption of primary energy.
GHG emissions: India is 4th largest contributor of GHG emissions with 5% of total global GHG  emissions with 1601 Million Metric Tons of CO2. The projected annual percentage change in the carbon emission for the world is 1.3% by EIA between 2010-2040. For India it is 2.1%.
Energy policy of India
India's energy policy above all focuses on securing energy sources to meet the needs of its growing economy. Indian policy has an aim of gaining energy independence by 2030. The strategies to be adopted would include increased hydrocarbon production, increase in unconventional resource share such as coalbed methane and shale, acquisition of foreign companies by domestic companies, reduction of subsidies on motor fuels.  The stretegies are intended to either decrease the demand or to increase the enery supply. Industrial sector is the largest consumer of energy at about 40%.  India was the fourth largest consumer of oil and petroleum products in the world in 2011, after the United States, China, and Japan. The power sector makes up the majority of coal consumption. Coal powered electricity generating stations lack sufficient fuel supply leading to severe shortage of electricity.
According to an international viewpoint, given that the service industry accounts for more than half of India's output, further economic growth could remain relatively non-energy intense.
India is the fourth largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, China, and Russia.  Primary energy consumption has more than doubled between 1990 and 2011. At the same time, India's per capita energy consumption remains lower than that of developed countries.  Some parts of the energy sector, such as coal production, remain relatively closed to private and foreign investment. India has big coal reserves and has a healthy growth in natural gas production.  India remains dependent on imported crude oil.

According to Indian Government sources,  India would reach total energy production of 669.6 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) by 2016-17.  By, 2021-22, the projections are estimated to be at 844 MTOE.  Energy production are estimated to meet around 71 per cent and 69 per cent of energy consumption respectively.  The balance to be met from imports, projected to be about  267.8 MTOE by 2016-17 and 375.6 MTOE by 2021-22.
Total energy production, according to the report, is 18,734 peta joules during 2011-12, i.e., 447MTOE or 17.57 Quadrillion BTU. (18734 / 41.868 = 447 MTOE or 18734 / 1055 = 17.57 Quadrillion BTU)
The contribution to Indian energy production by fuel type is as follows.
Coal and Lignite – 50%
Crude petroleum  - 8.5%
Natural gas – 9.7%
Electricity – 31.4%

Coal consumption in the 12th 5 yr plan is about 980MT

Energy imports are expected to reach 53% of total consumption by 2030.  About 80% of the crude oil consumption would be supplied through imports of about 160million tonnes.  Oil import would account for 31% of total imports.  Coal is also being imported to fill the gap in supply due to insufficient mining and transportation.  About 18% more coal was imported in 2010.